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Armor Main Battle Tanks Tanks represent the main striking force of an army. Tanks form the backbone of the armored force and their main mission is to create and exploit breakthroughs, defend against enemy armored forces, destroy other tanks, armored vehicles and artillery. Despite their usefulness being called into question on the battlefields of the twenty first century, tanks have been used extensively and effectively both in conventional and unconventional conflicts in the past 20 years.

The invasion of Iraq Operation Iraqi Freedom was spearheaded by a tank onslaught that led to the capture of Baghdad. In Ukraine intanks played a crucial role in the fighting in Donbass between Ukrainian forces on one hand and Russian armed forces and rebels, on the other hand.

Romania, however, cannot afford such an option due to an unstable and unpredictable neighborhood. Furthermore, Belgium and the Netherlands may rely on larger and military more powerful neighbors such as France and Germany as a geopolitical glacis. At present, the Romanian Land Forces operate a plethora of Soviet built and locally manufactured derivatives of the ubiquitous T tank, the most produced tank top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette the world.

Only 56 TRM1 have been produced between and and only one tank battalion is equipped with them. The original Ts have been upgraded to TAM2 standard and two tank battalions are equipped with this model. Romania has also used the T Ural main battle tank but only 30 have been acquired in from the Soviet Union by the communist regime.

The TR prototypes did not receive type certification by the Defense Ministry and soon afterwith the Cold War over, the program was cancelled.

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After the fall of communism and the end of the Cold War tank development work in Romania concentrated on upgrading the existing stocks of TRs. Inthe Defense Ministry issued a request for information regarding the potential acquisition of main battle tanks. In Octoberthen defense minister Mihai Fifor announced that Romania is interested in acquiring new tanks, however, he did not offer any other details regarding the program. It was argued that, compared with the current inventory of tanks, a foreign made vehicle would cost too much to maintain over its entire life cycle.

This attitude was partly driven by hopes of reviving tank production in Romania. The RFI did not specify if Romania was interested in newly built vehicles or used ones. In the medium and long term, the Romanian government should also try to join crème anti rides la roche posay avis French and German led efforts to create a European tank — Main Ground Combat System.

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It appears that the Defense Ministry settled on a phased approach regarding the main battle tank program. Top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette program will be initiated in the period. Two programs are being developed for the acquisition and manufacturing of armored personnel carriers. According to former defense minister Mihai Fifor, by the end of earlythe first 36 vehicles should have been delivered, [17] but the program may be facing delays due to troubles with the UT Mk 2 turrets.

Elbit, the manufacturer of the turrets, explained top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette the late delivery of 30 mm Mk 44 Bushmaster cannons by its U. The decision of the Romanian government to modernize UMB indicates that in the future the factory may be involved in the production of heavier armored fighting vehicles. Starting withRomania is set to acquire and produce a second type of wheeled APC called Agilis.

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Originally, inthe Romanian government selected Rheinmettal Defence as the international partner in the program. The answer to this question depends on four variables: standardization, interoperability, availability and economics. Only inall 31 vehicles were delivered [30] and another 12 derivatives were contracted. Interoperability with the American forces deployed in Romania was therefore a must for any future acquisition.

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Since when Romania acquired the first Piranha APCs, the technical requirements and performance of wheeled APCs had increased and vehicles with better protection, mobility and firepower have been developed. Most modern wheeled APCs have the same degree of protection and firepower as infantry fighting vehicles.

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Furthermore, it partly draws inspiration from western 8×8 APCs, which the Russian armed forces got the opportunity to test before the onset of the Ukrainian crisis. The Piranha V is better protected than the American Stryker vehicles while sporting the same armament and mobility.

Furthermore, in keeping with current armored vehicles trends, it comes equipped with the Orbital ATK Mk. This type of cannon equips the latest variant of Stryker APC, the Stryker Dragoon, although in an improved variant, the XM elimina ridurile submandibulare has a slightly longer barrel than the standard Mk.

Although the Romanian Land forces have opted not to equip the Piranha V with anti-tank missiles, its turret is capable of mounting a twin launcher for Spike LR anti-tank guided missiles which are currently in service with the Romanian Army. Here is where the Agilis project fits in, as this vehicle is planned to have an amphibious capability.

Furthermore, the Agilis program aims to develop a 4×4 variant of this APC which will be used for reconnaissance. The other reason has to do with maintaining an industrial capacity to design and produce wheeled APCs in Romania. Nevertheless, Agilis and Piranha V will top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette share any components, even if they are produced locally.

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The engine, driveline, armor and the weapons are going to be different. This will raise serious logistical issues in the future when both vehicles will be in service, unless a very well thought out logistical system is put in place. Romanian planners are aware of the risk involved in this approach and, defense minister Gabriel Leș has indicated that the Agilis program may be the subject of a tender, casting doubt over the partnership with Rheinmetall.

The two projects involve two different factories which have produced in the past armored vehicles.

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In both cases the government is looking to integrate as much of the production as it is possible locally in order to revive the Romanian arms industry. For example, the Israeli company Elbit has opened a production facility in Măgurele near Bucharest which will manufacture and assemble turrets for Piranha V vehicles.

Around of these vehicles have been modernized in the early s with NATO compatible systems: 25 mm automatic cannons, Spike LR anti-tank guided missiles, modern night vision equipment, a new engine as well as modern communications systems. Initially 4 battalions or vehicles were planned to be modernized but only 3 battalions have been upgraded to the MLIM Jder standard.

The decision to further upgrade 48 top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette underscores the shift in mindset from expeditionary missions to territorial defense for the Romanian armed forces. However, this program raises a number of questions. Should Romania do away with tracked infantry fighting vehicles and rely exclusively on wheeled vehicles?

Nevertheless, it must be said that this is not a general trend. Second, the first upgrade program for the MLIM did not include increased protection for the crew and the infantry squad it carries. The MLIM shares the same drawbacks as the original Derm active anti-imbatranire crema faciala pm vehicle: vulnerability to mines, increased risk of fire in the troop compartment and a rather small troop compartment.

It seems that the new upgrade program will address some of these deficiencies: better protection, enhanced mobility by integration of an automatic transmission, enhanced night vision equipment and upgraded electronic early warning systems.

There has been some research and development work done for the manufacturing of this vehicle, but it has yet to leave the design board. The vehicles were supposed to provide mobility for the anti-tank teams of mechanized infantry units. However, the tender was cancelled in amid corruption allegations and it has yet to be relaunched. Unfortunately, the Romanian Land Forces suffer greatly in this respect as most if its current inventory of vehicles is quite old, while the new vehicles are few and have not been standardized.

Different variants of U. Moreover, Dacia Duster 4×4 vehicles are increasingly replacing old ARO vehicles in auxiliary roles that do not involve front line service.

If the tender for 4×4 armored vehicles is relaunched, its aim should not only be to give mobility to infantry anti-tank teams, but also to standardize as much as possible the current inventory of 4×4 vehicles. Rather than buy a vehicle type for a specific operational requirement, the Romanian Land Forces should concentrate on acquiring a family of vehicles.

Moreover, the production of the vehicles should be locally integrated as much as possible. Artillery At present, the artillery of the Romanian Land Forces suffers from three major drawbacks.

First, the reliance on Warsaw Pact calibers: mm, mm and mm. Third, and the most serious issue facing the Romanian Land Forces, is the lack of an industrial capacity to produce tube artillery. Arsenal Reșița, the state owned company which produced artillery pieces for the Romanian armed forces, has been closed top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette Aside from these issues the experience of the Russian-Ukrainian war must be considered and internalized.

The acquisition has been made without a tender, through the Foreign Military Sales program of the U. When the HIMARS systems will be deployed and become operational aroundRomania will have regained a limited tactical ballistic missile capability.

However, the Defense Ministry budget planning indicated that an acquisition program should begin in the near term, between and If this is the case, then Romania will regain part of its artillery building capacity. Rheinmetall Defence has expressed interest in acquiring Arsenal Reșița but the deal has yet to be approved by top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette government. First is the question of munitions. Small Arms As in the case of artillery systems, the Romanian armed forces still predominantly employ small arms in Warsaw Pact calibers.

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The top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette is based on the AK platform and comes in 5. Unfortunately, the new rifle is still in prototype stage and awaits type certification after 8 years since the program has been initiated.

No program for NATO caliber light or medium machineguns or designated marksman rifles has been initiated by the Defense Ministry. Due to the protracted development process of the new assault rifle, Romanian officials have reached out to foreign companies. It seems that rather than producing a new rifle, license manufacturing of an existing design to Romanian specifications is sought after. Small batches of these assault rifles have been tested by elements of the Romanian armed forces.

In Septemberan agreement between Uzina Mecanică Plopeni and Beretta was approved for the creation of a joint venture which will produce small arms. The United States would like to field a new assault rifle in Normally this would not represent a great development, however, the new rifle will be chambered for a 6.

Rather than go ahead and adopt a 5. Instead, as a stop-gap measure, it should modernize its existing stock of assault rifles with modern aiming devices and Picatinny rails and re-chamber its PK machineguns in 7. Furthermore, the current designated marksman rifle, the PSL, should be replaced with a new rifle chambered in 7. Finally, if the U. This seems the best course in terms of both costs and technology. Although rifles today top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette a modular design, which allows using different calibers on the same platform, munition manufacturing lines are not so easily adaptive.

This acquisition program is likely to have a positive impact on the local auto industry as most of these trucks will be built locally. The government has made no secret that it wants part of the money spent on defense reinvested into the economy through offsets. Given such a large order, local truck manufacturing will be encouraged. Regardless, this development will delay the entire program. However, to date, no acquisition process has been launched.

According to the Defense Ministry, Romania lacks modern C4ISR systems and the current command and control systems operated by the military fulfill emergency operational requirements, but suffer from operational limitations and have limited interoperability.

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A controversy arose when a memorandum of understanding between Circinus LLC and Romarm, the state owned Romanian defense industry holding was signed. Similar allegations have been made against Mr. Dragnea in connection with the corvette program.

However, the signing of memorandums of understanding between two or more companies does not mean that a certain contract will be awarded to one of the parties involved and does not replace a contract. Cremă anti-îmbătrânire cu rating ridicat C4ISR systems, the Defense Ministry wants the armed forces to have unrestrained access to satellite communications.

An acquisition program will probably be launched in in order to select a supplier. Carrying out reconnaissance, surveillance, intelligence gathering, targeting and strikes, drones increase the awareness and lethality of any military branch.

Presently, around the world, drones are being operated and developed for air forces, land forces, navies and special forces. Romania operates a limited number of UAVs and their operation is surrounded by secrecy. In Februarythe tender was cancelled after two companies, Ymens Teamnet and Israel Aerospace Industries, lodged complaints with the Romanian public acquisition watchdog. The aircraft was tested in Afghanistan, but has not been adopted by the Romanian military yet.

The Defense Ministry is looking for local UAV manufacturers or aviation companies to take up production of the Boreal. Helicopters SinceRomania has been a producer of military and civilian helicopters. In contrast with other Warsaw Pact nations, Romania license built and later developed its own versions of western helicopters.

However, this aircraft is approaching the end of its operational life, with most of the airframes being more than 30 years old. In Romania top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette exploring options for replacing its ageing military helicopter fleet.

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However, no acquisition program has been put forward. Romania needs to replace its progrese anti-îmbătrânire în stomatologie helicopters, light helicopters for training and other missions and to acquire naval helicopters for its new ships.

Furthermore, after almost 20 years, Romanian decision-makers have expressed interest in acquiring attack helicopters, to increase its anti-tank and close air support capabilities. However, Romania is in competition with Poland and Hungary to become such a hub.

Poland is better positioned in this respect hosting manufacturing facilities of three major international helicopter producers: Sikorsky Helicopters subsidiary of Lockheed MartinAirbus Helicopters and AgustaWestland.

In Hungary, Airbus will open a manufacturing facility for helicopter components after Top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette ordered 20 HM light helicopters and 16 HM Caracal medium transport helicopters. Airbus has asked the government to order a minimum of 16 helicopters to start production. The preference for U. For three years Romania has conducted talks with Bell Helicopter and the U. Graf Furthermore, Romanian authorities have opened negotiations with Bell Helicopter for the production and assembly of attack helicopters at IAR Ghimbav.

From a technological point of view, Bell Helicopter has the added advantage of being involved in the development of tiltrotors [] and Romania could benefit from a potential technology transfer. Another U. Lockheed Martin has proposed that Romania acquire UHM Black Hawk helicopters to replace the current helicopter fleet, while establishing in Romania a maintenance center for all of its European customers. However, the deployment of U.

The approach chosen by the Romanian government to modernize its helicopter fleet raises a number of issues. First, the lack of an approved program and budget that will form the basis of an acquisition process.

The National Defense Council CSAT has approved programs for transport, combat search and rescue and medevac helicopters for the armed forces forbut this is top 10 produse anti-îmbătrânire 2022 corvette from an acquisition program. There is a requirement masti coreene dm the table for 45 helicopters, but that in itself raises a different set of issues.

However, what stands out in the negotiations with Bell Helicopter is the acquisition of 21 UH-1Y Venom medium helicopters which are in the same class as the HM. Romania is likely to operate two types of medium helicopters if the government agrees to order aircraft from both manufacturers.