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Anual sunt diagnosticate 5 milioane de noi cazuri de AD,la fiecare 7 secunde fiind raportat un nou caz. Pana crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae momentul de fata,nu exista nici o terapie curenta care sa stopeze ori sa reverseze aceasta patologie. Acest articol este o trecere in revista a datelor recente din literatura de specialitate privind mecanismele biopatologice ale AD cu privire la rolul platformelor mobile lipidice si modificarile acestora in AD.

Annualy 5 million new cases of AD are diagnosed,a new case being reported every 7 seconds. Crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae far,there is no a current therapy that can stop or reverse this desease. This article is a review of recent literature data on biopathological mechanisms of AD regarding the role of lipid rafts and their changes in Crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae.

Rafts are particularly rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, and the side chains of the phospholipids present are usually highly enriched in saturated fatty acids compared with the surrounding nonraft regions of the membrane.

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Enrichment of phospholipids with saturated fatty acids allows for the close packing of lipids within rafts because [1] sphingolipids also contain saturated fatty acid side chains, and[2] cholesterol and saturated fatty acids are able to pack closely.

As a result of the presence of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, lipid rafts are more ordered and less fluid than the surrounding membrane. Cytoplasmic proteins that are covalently modified by saturated fatty acids palmitoyl or myristoyl moieties and cell surface proteins that are attached via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor are highly concentrated within lipid rafts.

Many proteins involved in signal transduction,such as Src family kinases, G proteins, growth factor receptors,mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK ,3 and protein kinaseC are predominantly found in lipid rafts, which appear to act as signaling platforms by bringing together i.

According to Kay Simons et al[4], AD is associated with neurodegeneration involving accumulation of extracellular amyloid aggregates also known as senile plaques SP of small, toxic, and highly amyloidogenic 42 amino acid amyloid beta Aβ42 peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles NFTs of hyper-phosphorylated tau p-tau protein. The accumulation of Aβ42 as diffuse plaques triggers the inflammatory responses due to microglial activation with release of pro-inflammatorycytokines and the most affected brain areas are the neo-cortex and hippocampus.

In addition, perturbations in the equilibrium between kinases and phosphatases resulting in hyperphosphorylation of tau protein that results in neuronal degeneration and neuronal loss [5]. Lipid rafts in biopathological mechanisms of AD Lipid rafts are small nanodomains 10— m ,heterogeneous, highly dynamic of which there are millions in a single cell [4,6].

Recently they have gained considerable attention as these membrane-embedded clusters of phospholipid-sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched,integral and peripheral membrane proteins are instrumental in the processing of APP holoprotein and hence the amyloidogenic process itself [7]. The long, saturated acyl chains of sphingolipids allow tight packing hence their juxtaposition with the kinked, unsaturated acyl chains of bulk membrane phospholipids leads to phase separation.

The researchers [6] pointed out the importance of lipid rafts in protein sorting and segregation with glycosylphosphatidylinositol GPI -anchored proteins, being preferentially localized in lipid rafts.

Also,other lipid modifications of proteins have been described, such as palmitoylation and myristoylation which may influence raft localization [6]. In describing membrane lipid clusters as moving platforms, or rafts perhaps the most important finding was that proteins could be segregated being selectively included or excluded from the rafts. In this way, raft localization can serve crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae facilitate or obstruct protein interactions or act as a protein scaffold while allowing diffusion [9].

Beside the β secretase, presenilins are transmembrane proteins localized predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum ER and Golgi consumatorul raportează cea mai bună cremă antirid. They also interact with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 through human FKbinding protein 38, thus it may regulate the apoptotic cell death [11].

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The key event driving AD pathogenesis is the accumulation of the 40—43 residue Aβ peptides in the brain [13].

The peptides, particularly Aβ1—42, are aggregation prone,self-assembling to form a heterogeneous mixture of solubleoligomers, protofibrils and fibrils. Only levels of the soluble,fibrillar oligomers were found to be elevated significantly in AD brains, where their levels correlate strongly withAD onset-severity, and are therefore proposed to be the major neurotoxic species in AD [14].

Consequent deleterious effects include neurotoxicity, memory impairments,inhibition of long-term potentiation LTPloss of dendritic spines and synaptic dysfunction [15].

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It is a neuroprotective and plays important roles in limitation of excessive N-methyl-d-aspartate NMDA receptor activity which mightcause neuronal damage, neuronal oxidative stress defense,and metal ion homeostasis in the brain crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae. However, fibrillar Aβ oligomers, but not monomers or fibrils, bound tightly to PrPC[17,20] and the presence of PrPC in hippocampal slices was shown to be responsible for the fibrillar Aβ oligomer-mediated inhibition of LTP [17]and the manifestation of memory impairments in an AD mouse model [15].

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Recent studies have identified PrPC as a critical modulator of the AD-related synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairments caused by Aβ oligomers[21]. Rushworth et al. It is a trans-membrane protein that facilitates the clathrin-mediatedendocytosis of PrPC[22] and has also been implicated in the neuronal uptake of Aβ oligomers [23]. The researchers[16] indicated that LRP1 functions as a transmembrane coreceptor that is involved in the Aβ oligomers-PrPC interaction and is required for their internalization, and cytotoxicity of the Aβ oligomers.

Thus, PrPC is no longer protective but contributes to Aβ oligomer neurotoxicity and furtherAβ production in a toxic, positive feedback loop.

In addition, PrPC was required for the downstream cytotoxicity of the fibrillar Aβ oligomers through the activation of amember of the Src family crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae SFKFyn kinase. The latter is implicated in multiple pathways that underlie AD[25], including mediating the toxicity of Aβ oligomers and linking Aβ to tau toxicity [26], NMDA receptor phosphorylation and cell surface distribution, dendritic spine loss and lactate dehydrogenase [24].

PrPc together with the data on β secretase regulation provides a unifying molecular mechanism explaining the interplay between toxic Aβ species, NMDA receptor-mediated toxicity and copper homeostasis in pathogenesis of AD [27]. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that deletion of the N-terminus blocked the toxicity of natural Aβ oligomers [28].

Thus, this region appears to be critical to a number of functions of PrPC,although its role in protective functions raises questions,would be a viable approach for the treatment of AD?

The importance crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae using well-defined oligomer con-formations for biological activity potentially explain thediscrepancies in results showing a lack of PrPC-dependence of Aβ oligomer toxicity, as different studies have employed distinct, often poorly characterized Aβ oligomer prepara-tions or unnatural APP constructs which may not lead to the generation of biologically relevant Aβ oligomers snapper elvețian anti-îmbătrânire. As the conformation of fibrillar A β oligomers is a critical deter-minant of their PrPC-mediated binding and subsequent toxicity so, disrupting the conformation of Aβ oligomers could also be a potential therapeutic approach for AD [12].

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that stabilizes neuronal microtubules under normal physiological conditions, however in AD, Aβ induces tau phosphorylation that can result in the generation of aberrant aggregates that are toxic to neurons [29]. Mutations in tau give rise to NFTs but not plaques and mutations in APP or in the probable APP proteases give rise to both plaques and tangles indicates that amyloid pathology occurs upstream of tau pathology[11].

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There are numerous proteases in the brain that participate in Aβ degradation and clearance including cathepsins, gelatinases, endopeptidases, aminopeptidase,neprilysin, serine protease, and insulin-degrading enzyme IDE [30].

Conclusion Although the function of APP remains to be fully elucidated, understanding APP trafficking and processing would also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism of the amyloidogenic pathway. The processing of APP involves numerous steps, including APP sorting, transport,internalization and sequential proteolysis [32].

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Altered routing of APP trafficking and distribution in neurons might lead to the amyloidogenic pathway, which is implicated in the pathology of AD. Hence, the intracellular distribution and transport of APPare critical for Aβ production [34]. SorLA is down-regulated but sortilin is up-regulated in AD [36].

Mean-while, sortilin is associated with APP via head-to-head the extracellular domain and tail-to-tail the intracellular domain interactions; it regulates APP lysosomal and lipid raft trafficking through FLVHRY motif, and may promote lysosome-dependent degradation of APP [34].

Other, membrane-integral or -peripheral associated modulators of Aβ42 peptide generation such as TSPAN 12 further contributes to the kinetics of formation, cleavage,processing, and speciation of APP [37].

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The participation of a membrane-spanning triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 protein supports a role for yet another plasma membrane-integral glycoprotein in phagocytosis and the clearance of Aβ42 peptides before they aggregate into SP [38]. Hence, depending on the processing pathways crema anti-imbatranire seo ri tae biological signals utilized, the plasma membrane can be the source of both beneficial and detrimental signals to further modulate amyloidogenic, inflammatory or neurotrophic aspects of the AD process [5].

References [1]. Pike LJ. Lipid rafts: bringing order to chaos. J Lipid Res. Simons K, Toomre D. Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev MolCell Biol.

Bioinformation 2 — [6] Pike LJ. The challenge of lipid rafts. J Lipid Res;50 Suppl. Int J Mol Sci;— Structure and function of sphingolipid-andcholesterol-rich membrane rafts. J Biol Chem ;—4. Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing princi-ple. Science ;— The prion protein as areceptor for amyloid-beta. Nature ;E3—4.

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Neurobiol Dis ;—8. Memory impairment in transgenic Alzheimer mice requirescellular prion protein. J Neurosci ;— J Biol Chem ;— Cel-lular prion protein mediates impairment of synaptic plasticity byamyloid-beta oligomers. Nature ;— Prion protein interacts with BACE1 protein and differentiallyregulates its activity toward wild type and Swedish mutant amyloidprecursor protein. J Biol Chem;— Cellu-lar prion protein is essential for oligomeric amyloid-beta-inducedneuronal cell death.

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-relatedprotein 1 LRP1 mediates the endocytosis of the cellular prion pro-tein. Heparan sulphateproteoglycan and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related pro-tein 1 constitute major pathways for neuronal amyloid-beta uptake. Alzheimer amyloid-beta oligomer bound to postsynap-tic prion protein activates Fyn to impair neurons.

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Nat Neurosci;— Fyn-tau-amyloid: a toxic triad. IntJ Alzheimers Dis Prion protein facilitates uptake of zinc into neuronalcells. Alzheimers Res Ther ;— Role of tau proteinin both physiological and pathological conditions. Physiol Rev;—84 [28] Saido T. J Mol Neurosci ;—7.

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Amyloid precursor protein trafficking,processing, and function. J Biol Chem ;—9. The intracellular domain of sortilin interacts with amyloid precursorprotein and regulates its lysosomal and lipid raft trafficking. Rapid and direct transport of cell surface APP to the lysosomedefines a novel selective pathway.